to the sea again, again and again
An Awareness and a Yearning
as a young boy, you had lived on the shores of the Delaware River, which
flows between Philadelphia and Camden, New Jersey, prior to World War Two
you would have had an awareness of ships, boats and barges _ more so than
an awareness of recreational, water borne vessels beyond the hand-rowed
dinghy, the canoe, kayak, or the single masted, hollow structured sail
boat powered by the wind.
sides of the river harbored docks, warehouses, ships and shipyards for the
docking and repairing of freighters _ domestic and foreign _ that
delivered and transported goods and materials domestically and
an oil tanker could be observed going up or down the river _ to or from _
an oil terminal on Petty Island off the center of the channel above the
Delaware River Bridge, now the Benjamin Franklin. Two major shipyards were
situated _ one each _ on both sides: the Philadelphia Navy Yard and the
New York Shipyard in Camden. Minor yards such as Cramp's were on the
Pennsy side and Mathis on the Jersey side. Any beach walker on the Jersey
bank could observe these ships; and, with an imaginative mind a young boy
could fantasize that one day he would sail in such a ship. I did!
school during the war by "dropping-out" of Woodrow Wilson High
School in Camden, I worked at the Mathis Shipyard where I observed the
building of ships from the keel-up to launching and once stood on the bow
of a freighter _ holding fast to the flag staff _ as it was christened and
slid down the railway to its natural environment for its trial run and
eventual sailing to foreign lands to deliver supplies to America's
fighting-men and women around the world. What an experience that was to
watch a beautiful, young lady swing the christening bottle of Champagne
against the hull and _ as the ship descended _ feel the river current
grasp the ship and send it on its way for "fitting out." I
wondered: "would I ever have the opportunity to sail in such a
ship?" Yes, I would!
War Two presented me with a dilemma: join the Marines as my father had in
World War One or go to sea with the American merchant marine? I chose the
former and _ as such _ I eventually sailed in troopships, landing ships (LSTs),
Higgins boats, and amphibious tractors (Amtracs). A boyhood dream to be a
Marine had been realized but these shipboard experiences were as a trooper
headed in harm's way and not as a working seaman beyond: "sweepers,
man your brooms for a clean sweep-down fore and aft."
war ended in the Pacific and I returned from China in the standard way for
that era: by troopship.
I was faced with another dilemma at the age of 19 "going on" 20:
what does a young man with three years of Marine Corps service _ some of
it in combat _ do for the immediate future?
tried returning to high school at Temple University in Philadelphia but
after a few weeks I decided that schooling at this particular time of my
life was not for me. So, "dropping-out" again and walking south
on Philadelphia's Broad Street, I spied a very large banner that read:
"America Needs a Strong Merchant Marine." There was the answer:
"go to sea" - another boyhood dream!
how to find a ship? Being on North Broad Street, I realized the water
front was just about 14 blocks away to the east. There _ and right then _
I decided I would start my quest just north of the Delaware River Bridge.
I immediately walked to the waterfront _ opposite the New Jersey shoreline
_ which started south of Cramp's Shipyard. For the next three days I
covered the waterfront and boarded ships either by a gangplank or by an
accommodation ladder. At the top of each I would be confronted by a watch
stander who wanted to know my business and I would ask: "Is there a
berth for a seaman aboard this ship?" North or south of the bridge
the answer was always the same: "No"! If you want a berth you
must go through the Union Hall," which I learned would be one of
three: the Seaman's Union of the Pacific (SUP), the Seaman's International
Union (SIU), or the National Maritime Union (NMU).
to do? Looking in a phone book I found there was an NMU Hall in the
vicinity. I took off for there and when I found it, I walked into a
crowded, smoke filled room of unemployed merchant sailors all waiting to
be called to fill a berth, on any ship, bound anywhere , as a messman, a
deck worker, or in the "black gang" _ not a racial slur. When I
got to the front of the line I stated my purpose to the agent. After a few
questions he told me: "There are no berths for non-ticketed persons
and who do not belong to the Union." He continued: "Your chances
of finding a berth and getting ticketed are slim to nil as all the men in
this Hall and around the country are "veterans" of numerous ship
convoys who sailed the oceans in harm's way. Good-luck, next!" So,
being a Marine Corps veteran of the Pacific and China held no sway in this
situation. Having lost a family friend at sea _ Harry J. Mote, Jr., second
engineer aboard the S.S Meriwether Lewis, March 2,1943 in the Atlantic
Ocean _ I could well understand the policy and the feelings of the men in
the NMU hall at this time.
what to do and where to go?
The Custom House at Second and Chestnut Streets in Philadelphia where I
had enlisted in the Marines in the late fall of 1943 _ just after the
battle for the island of Tarawa in the South Pacific!
the Custom House and in the duty room of the Coast Guard I met a young
petty officer who informed me that in order to get "ticketed"
one had to get a "letter of promised employment" from a shipping
company or agent. He knew of one: the Atlantic Refining Company (ARCO) at
28th and Passyunk Avenue on the Schuykill
River. Off I went by trolley car - south on Broad and west on Passyunk.
the marine employment office of the ARCO refining plant I was met by a
distinguished gentleman who had, obviously, been a naval officer in the
recent war. He was attired in a black and white checkered sport jacket
with gray trousers and "spit shined," black shoes. He asked me
my business and when I told him, he said: "we are hiring but only
veterans of the recent war." And, I said; "Well, I am a
veteran!" His response: "You are?" He wanted to know more
and I gave him the details. His instructions were to return with papers _
an honorable discharge, a birth certificate, a social security card, and a
draft card. Enlisting in the Marines at 17,1 didn't have the latter but
procured one from the Draft Board in Camden which classified me as 4-C
returning veteran subject to recall in the event of a national emergency.
That's another story!
a week I returned to ARCO and presented Mr. Charles Waters with the
documents and he immediately issued me a "letter of promised
employment" which I presented to the petty officer at the Custom
House. Without hesitation, I was issued a US Mariner Document in the form
of a laminated card (Z853680) certifying me to sail as a wiper (engine
room), ordinary seaman, or messman. In the winter of 1946 I sailed out of
Portsmouth, Rhode Island as a wiper aboard the Steam Ship Atlantic States
bound for Port Arthur, Texas and the ARCO refinery and terminal on the
to joining the Atlantic States I was not unfamiliar with the maritime
service or seamanship. At the age of 111 attended meetings (too young to
join) of the Sea Scouts _ a division of the Boy Scouts in Cramer Hill, a
suburb of Camden. There I learned some basics: how to tie _ beyond a shoe
string knot and a granny _ a square knot, a clove hitch and a two half
hitch as well as shipboard nomenclature _ bow, stern, port (left) and
starboard. In the summers I was the guest of a family friend _ Gus Mote
brother of Harry _ at the Mote family seashore resort at Barnegat Beach.
Here, "Uncle Gus" introduced me to the Sunfish sailboat and
taught me how to set the rudder, step the mast, hoist the single sail, and
sail with the wind in Barnegat Bay.
the war came _ I was 14 (going on 15) and I joined the Camden unit of the
American Coast Patrol (ACP) _ the role of which was to support the New
Jersey state militia in the protection of highway bridges, electrical
installations, and water towers from saboteurs who might land on the
Jersey coast, which they did but not on "my watch" or on any
Jersey coast. During this tour I learned basic formations, drills and
military courtesy: "Yes sir," "No sir," and, "By
your leave, sir" as well as basic methods of patrolling and watch
the age of 16,1 left high school and went to work _ full-time _ at the
Mathys Shipyard; first as a cleaner and later as an Ozalid Operator in the
drafting department. At the latter job I was responsible for reproducing
white prints from drawings and for delivering same to lofts and ship board
compartments. This job allowed me to wander the yard and find my way
around ships by way of ladders, alley ways, decks, holds, engine rooms,
cabins, lockers and lazerettes as well as to climb masts _ fore and aft _
and to observe the workers: riggers, iron workers, welders and burners,
electricians, carpenters and ship fitters.
the Marine Corps _ at the age of 17 _ I sailed across the Pacific bound
for a war zone and into the Yellow Sea aboard a troopship which was a
converted from a freighter to an APA-attack personnel auxiliary. On board
we roomed in a hold, shacked up in a bunk, showered in a head and stood
watches with the sailors (swabbies) fore and aft and along the railings.
This experience brought me face to face with the elements: storms, heavy
seas, cold weather, and sea sickness. With a full marching pack and rifle
we Marines disembarked _ four abreast _ by way of a cargo net into landing
boats for the trip ashore and into harm's way.
to sailing as a wiper in the Atlantic States _ Captain H.M. Lauritzen,
Commanding _ my experience with tools was limited: hammer, nails and saws
to build bunk houses, improvised mallets to pound tent stakes,
screwdrivers, wrenches, and hand pumps to repair flat tires on my bike. In
the Marine Corps the only implement required was a "combination
tool" seated in the buttplate behind a hinged trap door in the stock
of the rifle. This tool consisted of a bullet size implement for a
cleaning patch to clean the receiver and an attached screwdriver to remove
the muzzle plug to get at the gas cylinder in the M-l Garand 30.06 rifle.
being a wiper, below decks, and in the engine room was a new experience
and an introduction to new tools. Work consisted of cleaning up after the
fireman, the water tender, the oiler and assisting (gofer) the pump man,
the machinist, and the engineer. Beyond "soogieing," wiping-up
oil and grease, chipping and painting there were "lines" to be
traced: water, oil and steam "for leaks. When found, these required
the removal of valves, gaskets, couplers and the replacing of same. Open
end, box and monkey wrenches (sometimes with a cheater) were required.
Often times a block and tackle was needed or a "come-along."
This could take place anywhere: on deck, in the shaft alley, and any place
'tween deck spaces in the engine room. Work below was always hot and
first voyage was a unique experience: I was paid $105.00 per month, stood
one, single watch of eight hours per day (weekends free), ate three meals
a day and a "night lunch," and was berthed in a three man
forecastle (foc'sle) with an ensuite hot water sink and mirror, a single
desk with chair, and a personal locker adjoining the tier bunks. What a
difference from the Marine Corps and troopships where I was paid $60.00
per month, was expected to stand watches of any length _ time off was
subject to demands _ and chow consisting, often, of K or C rations.
something was missing _ working in the open, watching the sea go by, and
observing the ship's heading, as well as the variations in the weather. I
began to understand me and my lack of aptitude for mechanics and a desire
_ and ability _ to be a marine engineer.
first voyage lasted 38 days and when the opportunity was presented I
transferred to the deck gang as an ordinary seaman, day worker. This
transfer was facilitated by the Chief Mate and bos'n (boatswain) and no
doubt encouraged by the First Engineer. I remained aboard the S.S Atlantic
States and signed new articles to sail as a "deck hand."
first tour in the Atlantic States allowed me to observe the work of the
deck department and deck hands _ day workers and watch slanders. Before
sailing and on the advice of an old sailor I went to the Philadelphia
waterfront and found a "ships' chandler" where I outfitted
myself with work clothes for warm and cold weather as well as clothes for
inclement weather. The latter was a three piece, water resistant, set of
oil skins, which consisted of: bib type pants, a slouch hat with a wide
flexible brim, and an over the hip jacket. Before leaving the ship a
"salty-old Norwegian" sailor advised me to pick-up a sheathed
knife with a good blade edge and a "fold in" marlinespike as
well as a pocket whetstone; and, while I was at it to get a few three
sided stitch needles and a palm to sew canvas. I picked up three of the
latter of different sizes and strengths. Outfitted with new outerwear that
included ankle high, cord shoes _ oil resistant and non-slip, I returned
to the ship for the next OJT experience as an ordinary seaman.
underway as a Deck Hand
next day - February 4,1947 - the S.S. Atlantic States _ Captain Werner
Appleton _ Commanding, sailed.
to sailing, the 13 members of the deck gang consisting of six (6)
able-seaman, three (3) watch-standing ordinaries, and three (3) day
workers (ordinaries) and one (1) bos'n assembled aft of the shelter deck
and were assigned stations and duties by the bos'n _ the leader of the
gang _ for getting the ship cleared of its moorings and getting underway.
watch slanders came from the three _ around the clock _ watches: morning,
forenoon, and afternoon (0400-0800, 0800-1200,1200-1600 repeated later as
1600-2000, 2000-2400, and 0100-0400).
twelve were assigned by the bos'n as follows: one "on-duty"
able-seaman to the wheel house to man the helm and one to the bow with the
ordinary seaman; two (2) able - seaman and a watch ordinary to the
fan-tail on the stern; and two able-seamen and an ordinary midships on the
main deck. The three day workers _ all ordinaries _ were assigned as
follows: one forward, one aft to the stern, and one midships along the
deck gang _ as required _ handled all lines (fore, aft and midships) to
release the ship from its moorings. Those deck hands forward had the added
responsibility of hauling in and setting the anchor and hosing it down as
it passed thru the hawse pipe and dropped into the chain locker below deck
and saw to it the anchor was seated against the ship's hull.
the order was given to "lower the ball and heave her (the anchor)
in" the work began to get underway. The bos'n manned the steam winch
to haul in the anchor and the chief mate watched the anchor's progress out
of the water, up along the hull and seated with the flukes facing outward.
lines would be shipped first, stern lines next to allow the ship's bow to
swing away from the dock_and simultaneously _ the spring lines midship for
the ship's final release from the dock. Once the ship was underway on duty
watch standers moved to the bridge, off duty watch standers and day
workers set about stowing lines: bow lines in a forward "hold,"
stern lines aft in a "lazerette," and spring lines flaked in the
"shelter deck" midships.
a short coffee break, the deck gang went to work securing the ship for sea
and for crossing the sand bar into the open ocean. Entry way hatches and
tank tops were closed, dogged down and made water tight. All loose gear
was stowed or made fast. Heaving lines, blocks and tackle and ladders _
such as a Jacob were stored in the shelter deck with hand tools in
respected places _ a place for everything and everything in its place.
ship is not indigenous to the sea. Fresh and salt water play havoc with a
ship in the forms of rust, corrosion, and rot _ rust on iron and steel,
corrosion on copper and brass, and rot on wood, hemp and canvas. Once the
ship is underway maintenance begins: chipping, scraping, wire brushing and
painting on metal, greasing on brass plates and metal work on machinery,
and marlinespike seamanship on canvas and hemp lines _ 3/16" to
for Life at Sea
post World War Two in American merchant fleets there was no formal
training programs as you might have found in industry, manufacturing or
construction. Any merchant sailors _ during the war _ who had wanted to
"go to sea" may have gotten their training in a government
operated training facility _ on the east coast _ at Sheepshead Bay,
Brooklyn, NY, under the guidance of the United States Maritime Commission
and the United States Coast Guard. When the war ended that training ended
as there was no further need for "convoy sailors."
I sailed _ late 1946 _ the mode of training was "pick-up" _ one
learns while one earns; and, therefore there were no training categories
such as: apprentice, journeyman, and master journeyman that led to one
becoming an artisan with the appropriate certification as an artificer.
Signing on as an ordinary seaman I quickly learned that the nature of the
work aboard ship required one to be enthusiastic, intuitive and eager to
tackle any job assigned with the intention of mastering the tasks and
jobs. Slackers were not welcomed! And, the "teachers" were
"ancient mariners" who learned their skills on the old sailing
ships, coal fired steamships and they "came up" through the
major-domo on deck was the boatswain (bos'n) who assigned tasks and work
and who followed-up on the assignments and the men responsible. A good
bos'n (and I served under several) would take a "new
hand" and show him around the ship before sailing and mate the novice
with an experienced hand.
day's work began at 0800 _ after a hearty breakfast _ for non-watch
standers and concluded at 1700 hours with intermittent breaks for lunch
and coffee. In my case the bos'n took me forward to the bos'n's locker,
the paint locker, the tool crib, the chain locker in the fore castle and
then mid-ships to the rigging room and pointed out hemp and cord, canvas,
blocks and tackles, stoppers, heaving lines and associated hand tools.
Along the way he pointed out the steam and electric winches and capstains.
else I was to learn on the go. But, he did point out that an oil tanker
had twenty seven _ nine rows of three across _ cavernous, cargo holds to
contain jet fuel, aviation gas, furnace oil, petrol and crude oil. These,
he noted, needed butterworthing (cleaning) periodically as did the holds
for "bunker fuel" that fired-up the boilers.
major and daily tasks of the seaman were to maintain the ship above the
main deck _ fore and aft of topside housing _ and, at times, over the side
of the ship as well as masts and kingposts.
underway from the dock, the seamen are tasked to raise the anchor, ship
the lines, and stow all running gear for a safe voyage to the next part of
deck a seaman is never without a knife and stone to sharpen the knife, a
marlinespike, a pocket crescent wrench, and a sheathed %" open wrench
with a pointed end to tighten down nuts and bolts and to hold flanges in
place. A "cheater" to apply leverage to the wrench needs to be
inclement weather _ beyond a peripheral inspection of the ship _ all work
is done in the shelter deck: oiling and greasing tools and friction
equipment, repairing hemp and cord, sewing canvas, splicing, whipping, and
ship there is always work to be done _ corrosion in the tanks can eat a
ship up in 20+ years and rust and decay can inhibit the life of a ship.
and aft the new ordinary seaman learns there are permanently installed
bollards or bits where round turns of heavy hemp line hold the ship to the
dock. Getting underway requires theses lines to be shipped and hauled in
by "Norwegian steam" at first then by the steam winch or
electric capstain to bring them on deck where they are flaked out and made
fast prior to stowing. If the ships is anchored the anchor _ a Danforth _
is hauled in first _ upon command _ by the steam winch since the anchor
will weigh at least 5 tons and each link about 150 Ibs. Most ships have
150 fathoms of chain (900') and 5-7 fathoms of chain are let out for each
fathom of water 90' of water, 15 fathoms, 90' of chain. One learns fast
how important the steam winch is in hauling in and stowing the anchor and
therefore one becomes acquainted with the essentials _drum brake and
clutch lever, and speed control. Usually, the bos'n handles the winch and
occasionally will allow a seaman to "get the hang of it." Down
below the chain is not allowed to pyramid so one or two seamen will be
ordered below to guide the links to a horizontal lay in the anchor locker.
deck _ at the bow _ of an oil tanker is a formidable minefield of
equipment and machinery; a steam windlass, gypsy heads (winches),
capstains and bits _ the latter for "tieing-up" the ship.
major structure is the steam winch that holds the chain to the anchor. The
chain is held in place by the windlass which grasps each link and holds
the anchor in place for dropping or bringing in the anchor. To use the
gypsy heads to bring in the forward/bow lines the windlass must be
disengaged by releasing the clutch and engaging the gypsy head winches.
the anchor _ if dropped _ is hauled in first with the chain going
immediately into the chain locker where the "bitter end" is
firmly attached to the locker deck.
the anchor is set and made fast and the lines are secured, watches are
manned and a look outs posted on the bow and on the bridge as the ship
gets underway _ usually down a river where small boats and large ships are
using the waterway _ to assist in avoiding collisions.
Climbing Jacob's Ladder
job training is the scheme for making headway as a seaman and for a career
at sea. For about a year, the new seaman will work as a deck hand in order
to become acquainted with life, work and duties aboard ship in any
weather, at any time, and in all circumstances. As an experienced
vocational educator it is easy to look back and identify the major
training steps: apprentice, journeyman, and master. On deck, these would
be recognized as: ordinary seaman, able seaman, and - quarter master. With
the appropriate officer recommendations where after 365 days at sea the
seaman can "sit" for an exam by the United States Coast Guard in
any major American port and upon passing that exam can be classified as an
able seaman _ 12 months. With this classification he can take on watch
standing duties and continue to accept responsibilities for maintaining
the ship, steering the ship, and loading and discharging the ship's cargo,
and assisting in docking and "letting go" the ship.
completing another 730 full days at sea the able seaman (AB) can take
another Coast Guard exam _ paper and "hands on" _ and upon
successful completion of these "milestones," the seaman is
"ticketed" as an Able Seaman for life. This certification allows
for the assumption of duties as a watch helmsman and/or as a bos'n. The
former is responsible to the mate on duty.
port or at sea duties and responsibilities are not inclusive to one job or
task at a time; they are consolidated as required and performed as
directed whether the seaman has one day at sea or the accumulated 1,095
required to become an Able Seaman for life.
learning experiences and on-job training are truly "pick-up"
throughout the first three years at sea and a young and inexperienced
sailor needs to have a mentor. In my case my mentor was an "old
salt" of Norwegian extraction by the name of Blackie who sailed in
clipper ships, steam turbines, and diesel electric steel bottoms.
Duties of a Seaman
assist the interested and the motivated there are guidelines _ to climb
Jacob's ladder _ by the Employment and Training Administration of the U.
S. Department of Labor. These guidelines can be found in the DOL's
Dictionary of Occupational Titles and enumerated in U. S. Coast Guard
publications. During "the war," training was conducted at such
institutions as the U. S. Merchant Marine Training Station at Sheepshead
Bay, Brooklyn, NY. The training facility closed in 1947 and training was
by on-job-training (OJT) after that for new, post war seaman such as I.
However, at least one union picked up the responsibility after 1967 and
that was the Seafarer's International Union (SIU) Harry Lunderberg School
of Seamanship followed by the National Maritime Unions (NMU) Upgrading and
Retraining School. Six state maritime academies provide training primarily
at the baccalaureate level and graduate third
for the deck and engine departments. The United States Military Sea Lift
Command (MSC) provides retraining for seaman primarily in fire prevention
and suppression. Many two year, community colleges provide education and
training for the potential seafarer _ based on local needs _ and for those
who wish to have a deep water career.
have attempted to identify the jobs and tasks of a seaman as I remember
them from "pick-up" training aboard ship and at sea.
DOT's job descriptions are specific but not all encompassing but they do
provide a guide. I shall enumerate them!
deck department watches
a variety of duties to preserve painted surfaces
lines, running gear and cargo-handling gear; keeps same in safe
from bow of ship or wing of bridge for obstructions in path of ship
wheel while observing compass to steer; and keeps ship on course
(swabs) and washes down decks; uses hose to remove oil, dirt and
and scrapes rust spots from deck, super-structure and sides of ship;
uses hand or chipping hammer and wire brush
chipped area; applies fish oil, undercoat and primer and finish
wire rope; uses marlinespike, wire-cutters, and twine
hemp; uses marline-spike
canvas; uses three sided needles as required
the "ordinary" completes 365 days (8,760 hours minimum) at sea,
the ordinary becomes eligible to "sit for" the Able Seaman
ticket. With discharges signed by every Ships' Captain sailed under, the
ordinary can present his documents to the nearest Coast Guard
station/office and request to take the paper, oral and "hands
on" tests for certification as an Able Seaman. Once certified as an
Able Seaman the certificate is "good for life." This allows the
AB to, eventually, serve as a quartermaster (helmsman) and boatswain (bos'n),
Able Seaman (AB)
tasks on board ship to watch for obstructions in vessel's path
watch at bow and/or wing of bridge; and, "calls out" when
ships or obstructions are seen
depth of water in shallow or unfamiliar waters; uses lead line; shouts
information to bridge
ship by wheel; uses emergency steering apparatus as directed by
officer in charge (QIC) _ a mate, captain or ships pilot
out rigging and cargo handling gear; and maintains, overhauls and
stows cargo handling gear
stationary rigging and running gear
lifeboats and life boat equipment and gear
lifeboat winches and falls
major part of the AB test is the "hands on" handling of a
lifeboat in the water. This generally is held "dock-side" with a
360° sweep in the boat to illustrate boat handling, stepping the mast,
setting the rudder, and sailing "with the wind" to bring the
lifeboat to dockside and disembarking passengers. When the AB is issued
the Able Seaman ticket, the AB is considered by "all hands" to
be a qualified "lifeboat man."
aboard ship, fire, lifeboat and "man overboard" drills are held.
At least once a year lifeboat handling water drills are held in ship
ship under the direction of the QIC or navigating officer
a designated compass course
by wheel when ship is on "automatic pilot"
accuracy of course by comparing compass course with magnetic course
specific signals to ships in vicinity by semaphore flags and signaling
shutter light (blinker)
maintenance crews in wheelhouse and quarter deck maintenance when not
"at the wheel"
"gangway" watch in port; prevents unauthorized personnel
from coming "on board"
sea _ usually the AB's second year at sea _the quartermaster begins
familiarization with dead reckoning, piloting, celestial and electronic
navigation. The quartermaster maintains charts (maps at sea), and
charting equipment such as: compass, dividers, parallel rulers, course
recorders, pelorus and binnacles, log recording devices and rotators;
begins to use a sextant (personal). And, the quartermaster maintains
tide tables, tidal current tables, table distances between ports and
sight reduction tables.
the next two years _ three total at sea _ the quartermaster can, by
practice and study, prepare for the license as a Third Mate or Officer
of ocean going vessels. If successful the new licensee moves out of the
foc'sle and into a cabin. Whether or not the mate becomes a gentleman
(or a lady) depends.
times and AB will choose to remain in the foc'sle and work as an
AB-seaman and, when opportunity arises, sail as a boatswain.
able and ordinary seaman in their jobs and tasks on deck
cargo handling gear and life-saving equipment
the repairing, maintenance or replacing of defective gear
bos'n takes orders from the maintenance officer (usually a chief mate)
and docking and departing instructions from the captain or the captain's
surrogate _ an officer.
I went to sea _ late 40's-mid 50's_ there were no formal training
programs where one learned to be a seaman.
30 + years as a vocational educator it is possible to equate seaman
ratings (ordinary, able and quartermaster) to industry wide training
programs of: apprentice, journeyman and master. In all cases
certifications are required.
training for a seaman was spotty and circumstantial. One observed,
assumed responsibilities, did the jobs and the tasks, asked questions
and _ where and when a^ilable _ obtained a handbook of sorts to help you
know, understand and apply.
ability to take the noted Dictionary of Occupational Titles (the DOT)
and apply the jobs and tasks can be facilitated to "develop" a
training program; one needs only to obtain a copy of:
• Moullette, Ed. D., John B. Training
Start-up and Planning Guide. Tarpon Springs, FL, personal
printing, 1989. 44 pp. illus. copyright number TXU-385-232 in the
Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
Incidents at Sea
departing Camp Lejeune by troop train for travel west across the United
States and after arriving at Union Station, Los Angeles, we Marines _ in
the hundreds _ were shuttled by truck convoy south on US 101 to Navy
Pier San Diego. There a navy band musically welcomed the Marines to
board ship by an accommodation ladder. The ship was a converted
freighter and an APA _ Auxiliary Personnel Attack_troop transport bound
for Northern China. On the tide _ within minutes of our arrival _ the
ship "slipped its lines" and backed out to sea.
first nautical words I heard that gave a definite command were:
"lower the ball and heave her in!" Whenever a ship anchors _
at sea, in an estuary, or in port _ a black, light weight ball is
"run-up" the forward mast. This indicates to other ships the
vessel is at anchor. When lowered it indicates the ship is
"underway" _ officially.
sea trip _ across the Pacific _ lasted about four weeks before we
arrived at Taku, China. In those weeks we Marines:
"watches" around the clock and were alert for other ships,
submarine torpedoes and floating mines; and, of course, for anyone
afloat from any other ship.
accustomed to living in crowded quarters where our "bunks"
_ each one contained a Marine and his combat equipment.
BO and endured and showered and washed our clothes with sea water.
in long lines to reach the "mess deck" and eat
"chow," and to the "heads" or latrines.
the living "quarters" clean and in "ship shape"
condition by responding to the "boastwin's (bos'n's) whistle;
"sweepers man your brooms for a clean sweep down fore and
"lookout watches" and with the "armed guards" in
their gun turrets "manned" the 50 caliber machine guns and
took target practice with same.
high seas, cold rain, and storms wearing minimum amount of weather
gear while wearing a steel helmet.
the ship for a "buddy" who apparently went
"overboard" as a result of being sea sick - poor guy!
the 180th meridian _ west bound in latitude 40° 30' N
and entered the Domain of the Golden Dragon _ west of the
International Date Line.
thru the East China Sea and entered the Yellow Sea between China and
the Korean Peninsula.
Taku, disembarked down a "cargo net" _ (hands on the
verticals; feet on the horizontals) _ into a LCI - Landing Craft
Infantry - for the trip ashore and into "harm's way."
year later the return to the States was in the troopship USS John C.
Breckenridge _ Buchanan's Vice-President; Jefferson Davis' Secretary of
State and a CSA General. This was a shorter and speedier trip and was
one of rest, relaxation and rehabilitation.
both voyages _ outbound - west and inbound-east _ playing cards
(gambling) was a part of "off-duty" life. Blackjack (21) was
my favorite and I was relatively successful. Aboard the APA I was
playing and winning so much so that a technical sergeant accused me of
cheating and demanded a return of his losses. I refused!
pulled me up off the "cargo hold," grabbed me by what Marines
call "the stacking swivel" and slammed me up against the
"bulkhead." Again, he demanded a return of his losses; again,
I refused. Pulling his Kaybar knife from its scabbard, he pressed the
point of the blade against my throat. Then, he backed down_ which was a
relief to me _ and walked off without saying another word to me or the
Marines watching on. Since he was a NCO and I a PFC I could have pressed
charges _but didn't.
in the troopship one year later to San Diego I won heavily and broke a
buddy. Knowing his wife was meeting him "dockside," I returned
75% of his losses and he thanked me. And, there was still plenty of
liberty money for a few drinks in a bar off Grant Square.
Steam Ship Atlantic States was my first merchant ship in the American
merchant marine or what the British call the merchant navy; and, it will
always have a place in my memories, (see the appendix and the
was in the States where I learned more about me and my aptitudes or a
lack of them; and, where I learned _ ultimately _ to be a seaman and
eventually a sailor. My first trip at sea was with the Atlantic Refining
Company (ARCO) and I sailed as a "Wiper" in the engine room
and with the "black gang." And, it was "below decks"
where I went thru the "breaking in" period as the engineer on
watch sent me into the "boiler room" for a "bucket of
steam" or into the "machine shop" for a left-handed
wrench. Eventually, the "hazing" stopped when I began to
return with the proper tools such as an "inside caliper" for
measuring pipe diameters.
don't recall any hazing after I "signed on" as a "deck
hand" as an "ordinary Seaman" except I seemed to be
assigned the unusual jobs: cleaning bilges, butterworthing the fuel
tanks or going aloft to change a bulb in the "mast head "
light 100 ' above the "main deck" without the use of a safety
belt. 90' of the distance was in the seat of a "bos'n's
chair"; beyond that I needed to "shimmy" to the top of
the "truck," wrestle with the lights corroded "bird
cages," remove the "burned out" bulb and replace the new.
inclement days the "deck gang" would gather in the
"shelter deck-mid ships" to perform _ at the Bos'n's
discretion _ "marline-spike seamanship" such as:
"whipping small cordage, splicing manila hemp, sewing canvas,
making heaving lines and monkey fists, fashioning lanyards, reinforcing
bos'n chairs and greasing blocks." "Wire splicing" was
left to the bos'n but "deck hands" assisted and learned to
wear leather work gloves. Generally, we worked as individuals among
groups and listened to "sea stories":
the oldest "able seaman"
was a Norwegian who sailed in four masted ships, and in brigs, barks
and sloops and went to sea for the first time at the age of seven.
the bos'n who had been a Chief
Petty Officer (CPO) in the US Navy during the war, and who sailed in
two oceans at the same time!
the "ordinary seaman who _ in
his first trip at sea _ was torpedoed in sight of the entrance to
the Delaware River off the Jersey/Delaware coast.
the "able seaman" who
was torpedoed off America's eastern coast and was awarded a merchant
marine medal for bravery.
the "quartermaster" of a
freighter off Okinawa who kept the ship on a 90° course facing
inland during the naval bombardment with shells passing overhead
while alongside Marines were disembarking from APA's for the
the merchant mariners who felt
they should be considered armed forces veterans and entitled to the
privileges of the G. I. Bill. Those of us who were
"veterans" disagreed reminding them they: avoided the
draft, had three square meals each day, slept nightly in a
"bunk" with clean sheets and received a bonus when in a
war zone and made more money that the most humble G. I.
at sea there always was the fickle
sea: days and nights of rain, high seas broadside and fore and aft,
and hurricanes that prevented the ship from "making
headway" and the occasional "rogue wave" that
"broke over the bow" and over "monkey island"
the highest deck about 60' above the "water line."
drills and "abandoned ship" exercises were held once monthly.
Lifeboat handling and sailing was held whenever the ship was anchored
off shore as in the Gatun Lake of the Panama Canal or off El-Segundo,
CA, while waiting for a berth, or off Suez while waiting for North bound
traffic to exit the Suez Canal. It was in these drills that I, and other
novice seamen, learned to sail "with the wind."
loading" and "recovering the lifeboat(s)" provided
maintenance opportunities for checking the condition and equipment of
the lifeboats, greasing the "gravity davits" and "rudder
posts," and making certain that each seaman had a "May
West" or floating device, and that each was tight and snug to the
is a myth that sailors don't or can't swim. Well, they better know how
to swim if they want to survive with or without a survival vest. It was
not unusual for "off watch" sailors to "take a
off Manhattan at the entrance to the Hudson River several of us put a
Jacob's ladder off the port side mid ships and dove off the bow. The
flow out of the Hudson was swift and it pushed us toward the ladder
which we would grasp, climb aboard and dive again. Strenuous and
dangerous. Had we missed the ladder the current would have sent us
"out to sea" and we would have been candidates for rescue by
the Coast Guard or worse "lost at sea."
the Sabine River at Port Arthur, Texas, we dived, once, off the port
side, swam under the ship, and headed to the pier. Midway we swam under
the keel and another 40' to the dock. Then we realized had we lost our
direction we might have had to swim toward the "bow" _ 200' +
and might have drowned without ever seeing the light of day. We didn't
do that again.
the Gulf of Thailand I was scuba diving with a "buddy." We
exited the dive boat on the land side and swam right into a current
coming out of a river. We "dove on" a freighter fighting the
current and the effort used up a lot of air. By the time I reached the
ladder I was exhausted and "out of air." A diver's worst
experience. That evening I became nauseous and my toes and fingers
"tingled" while heading often for the "head." The
first sign of the "bends" or decompression sickness _ a
killer. And me! certified as a Dive Master by PADI.
"under water" experiences included a sting-ray ripping my mask
and regulator out of my mouth and a less than a perfect and professional
dive at the Barrier Reef off Cairns, Australia. That was a real
embarrassment! We do learn though, from our experiences _ if we survive.
after those and later in life certified me as an Aquanaut for
"living and working for twenty-four hours or more in an underwater
classroom laboratory at 30'."
July 1946 the last Marines with less than 85 points for separation from
the Marine Corps as World War Two veterans departed Taku, China by 1ST
for transfer, at sea, to the USNS Breckenridge destined for San Diego.
Breckenridge was a military transport with "hatches"
about 15' off the surface of the sea. To transfer from the 1ST to the
transport an improvised "gangway" without railing was
positioned between the two ships. One could see that crossing that
gangway was going to be perilous for anyone crossing and carrying a
"sea bag" on his shoulder. All Marines passing over but one,
made it and that Marine, fell into the sea, and was recovered; but, his
"sea bag" sank into Davy Jones' Locker at the bottom of the
Yellow Sea. Essentially, he had "deep sixed" his wardrobe and
his personal items thus departing the ship in San Diego without a thing
to his name.
out of the Port of Boston 24 June 1956 aboard the SS Maryland Sun _
Captain A. G. Baldwin, Commanding _ and following the coast line, south
about 150 miles off shore, we ran into a dense fog. Standing the 8-12
watch on the bow the visibility was nil. Looking aft towards the ship's
bridge I could see only blurred port and starboard "running
lights" and a hazy white masthead light. I thought: "this is
the densest fog I have ever experienced" and it was eerie! Being
relieved at midnight, I went aft to the mess hall, grabbed a cup of
coffee, and went below to my bunk. I slept with my clothes on, my shoes
untied, my weather jacket and life vest nearby. I fell asleep reading The
Young Lions. At 0630 I was awakened for my next watch and was told
by the man on watch that the Italian liner Andrea Doria was in a
collision east of our position and sinking. When I went to the bridge to
"relieve the wheel" I was told by the Captain that the Andrea
Doria was struck east of our position by the Swedish liner Stockholm at
2310 hours. It later sank off New York at 1000 hours 26 June at Latitude
40° 30' north and Longitude 69° 53' west. The Captain was advised by
the Coast Guard to stay clear as there were rescue vessels on scene and
an oil tanker would be a menace to navigation. That was the only
premonition I ever had at sea of possible danger and it caused me to
years earlier and in the same approximate geographic zone the British
liner Titanic collided with an iceberg _ on a calm night _ at Latitude
49° 56' north and Longitude 41° 43' west at 2140 hours on the 14th
of April 1912 and sank the next morning at 0122 hours _ 15 April _ with
the loss of 1500 souls or more.
Corpus Christi, Texas, in the bend of the Gulf of Mexico, is Aransas
Pass. On the west side of the pass is an oil terminal. Across the bay is
the town of Ingleside with a ferry dock and a restaurant. Eating in the
restaurant and waiting for the ferry to the terminal it rained
"cats and dogs." I saw the ferry pull-in, waited for it to
sound its departure whistle and ran out to jump on the stern. Reaching
the dock side ramp I realized I made a terrible decision as the ferry
was at least six - ten feet away from the dock. The landing was slippery
and as I jumped _ intending to land on the boat deck _ I knew I wasn't
going to make it and the next thing I knew I was in the bay. Underwater
I could hear the ferries' "emergency whistle" and when I
surfaced I heard: "man overboard." Life rings were thrown; I
grasped one and was hauled over and pulled to the deck _ soakened wet.
No unusual comments were made and _ after docking _ headed to the ship
amidst the laughter of my mates.
had only one fight at sea. Aboard a foreign destined tanker was a seaman
who "pumped iron" and had muscles like Charles Atlas. Underway
we got into an argument which I attempted to avoid by going to my
foc'sle. He followed and bullied me and finally he took a swing. I
backed off, protected myself from a volley of punches, and noticed he
was "muscle bound." Ah! I swung into him, knocked him into a
chair, and pummeled him. The next morning the fight was the talk of the
mess hall and my "buddy," who was a witness, said:
"Moullette you piled into him as if you were getting even with
every offense ever bared on you." Perhaps, I was. No trouble from
the "iron pumper," progeny of Charles Atlas, after that.
to sea" is a life experience. In my time at sea I sailed with
skippers with little or no formal schooling and with those who had
"pick-up" education only and who became skippers thru ship
board study and the passing of examinations without "cheat
sheets." And, then of course there were those skippers who attended
"the academies," such as the United States Maritimes Academy
at Kings Point, New York, and who graduated with a bachelor's degree,
and a third officer's license. All required continued ship board study
to become second mates, first mates, chief mates, captains, and ship
board pilots for rivers, canals, and
ocean ways leading to ports and estuaries. Most shared their knowledge
and experiences; others harbored theirs. I preferred the former and one
captain recommended me for my first _ and only_ tour of duty as a bos'n.
That was an honor and recognized as such by my ship mates. And, of
course it was a tremendous learning experience _ supervising and leading
experienced sailors, commanding the daily activities of seamen, and
being included in shipboard decisions and decision making.
days are behind me for now; but, I yearn for one more trip _ not on a
cruise ship or even a liner _ where I can feel the wind in my hair and
the sea spray in my face. That may not be possible but I keep dreaming
as I did when I was a kid. And, who knows, the "fickle finger of
fate" may yet point my way.
JOHN B. MOULLETTE, Ed. D.
813-934-9539 (T) 813-942-6748 (F)
Consultant to Military Sealift Command - Atlantic (MSCLANT),
Headquarters, Bayonne, NJ, 31 March thru 10 May 1996.
Studied, evaluated, and
rated United States Navy Education and Training Documents (NAVEDTRAD)
in Basic Shipboard Firefighting, Helicopter Firefighting,
and Shipboard Damage Control against recognized
Instructional Systems Development (ISO) standards for
conformance and levels of instructional difficulty at the
Afloat Personnel Management Center, Bayonne, NJ, 01 April
thru 08 April 1996. Evaluations and ratings CONFIDENTIAL.
Observed, evaluated, and
rated naval trained instructors in the delivery of subject
content instruction against established terminal, enabling,
and performance objectives as recorded in subject NAVEDTRA
documents in relation to ISO standards for conformance in
the training of civilian Mariners at the MSCLANT Fire
Training School, Naval Weapons Station, Earle, NJ, 09 April
thru 22 April 1996. Evaluations and ratings CONFIDENTIAL.
Observed, evaluated, and
rated randomly selected groups of Civilian Mariners in
emergency drills for performance capabilities measured
against training objectives, instructor delivery, and
shipboard job descriptions for emergencies aboard the USNS
COMFORT (T-AH20) - a hospital ship - at sea and in support
of a Military Readiness Evaluation (MRE), 23 April thru 10
May 1996. Evaluations and ratings CONFIDENTIAL.
14 May 1996
Tarpon Springs, Florida
Prepared for Battle -
John B. Moullette
me put this in perspective. I came out of World War II as a
Private First Class in Able Company, First Battalion, First
Marines, and out of the occupation of North China as a Corporal
in the same outfits of the First Marine Division, Fleet Marine
Force (FMF), Pacific.
further adventure at the age of 19 I sailed in the American
Merchant Marine first as an Ordinary Seaman, then as an Able
Seaman, and - finally - as a Quartermaster (helmsman) for three
years before being recalled to the Marines for the "police
action" in Korea.
almost immediately for Korea via the Receiving Station at the
Philadelphia Navy Yard, infantry (re-)training at Camp Le Jeune,
and overseas assembling at Camp Pendleton, I arrived in the
Pusan Perimeter by airflights touching down at Honolulu, Wake
Island, and Tachikawa, Japan; and, then by a train ride to Kobe
and a short sea voyage to Korea.
on forces "up on the line," I - with many others - was
trucked to the front where I joined as a replacement - much to
my surprise - A-l-1, where - after a short "snapping
in" period - I became a Squad Leader. The fighting against
the North Koreans was incessant and continuous and where days
fused into nights and nights fused into days with no letup of
casualties. I was prepared for this, but not for what was to
after the first of September 1950,1 was ordered to the port of
Pusan without explanation and arrived there hoping for an R
& R. But, the port was too crowded with LSTs, the docks too
crowded with supplies, and the "holding areas" too
crowded with Marines - all suffering from fatigue and all
looking on with "the stare."
"crapping out" for about an hour I heard my name
called. I answered to a Master Gunnery Sergeant with a clipboard
in his hand. Following his verbal command, I - and others
-followed him to a beached LST and up the ramp and into a
cavernous expanse of LVTs (landing vehicles tracks) three
abreast. The Gunny lead us down the rows and called out the
numbers and associated personal names, Mine was three port
meaning I was assigned to #3 Tractor on the port side of the LST
confused, I shouted out and asked the Gunny: "when is my
squad, still at the front, coming on board?" He replied;
"I don't know what you mean; you are assigned to this
tractor as the driver." I replied: "You've got to be
kidding" as I had never driven an LVT and went ashore at
Okinawa on an LCI, (landing craft infantry) sometimes called a
Higgins Boat. There was much laughter among the men as the Gunny
insisted I was listed with an MOS (military occupation
specialist) of such and such a number. I was astounded!
"How could that be? I had always been a grunt," I
said. And, the Gunny said: "Here it is in black and
white" with continuous laughter among my future shipmates
on the LST.
it dawned on me - coming through the Receiving Station at
Philadelphia, the "guidance sergeant" asked my
civilian occupation and I responded: "Able Seaman -
Quartermaster." Undoubtedly, he thumbed through his
military dictionary of occupational titles and equated it with -
amphibious tractor driver. The Gunny saw no ifs, ands, or buts
about it and LVT-3-Port became my tractor.
others in the crowd were trained as amphibious tractor drivers
at Camp Del Mar and they took it upon themselves to train me in
an accelerated fashion. Sitting in the left seat, I was
instructed how to "power-up" and how to drive forward
- just a few feet - by braking left and braking right and how to
put it in reverse - doing the same thing again and again - not
in the water or on land - but at sea while the LST was underway.
Marines from the front we were headed for what was to become the
landing at Inchon. With naval ships pounding the coast with
artillery, the landing Marines were loaded into the LVTs - 30 to
mine. My heart was in my stomach and other parts of my anatomy
were tight. I had the lives of 30 plus Marines in my hands.
red landing light went off, the yellow light came on for an
indeterminable amount of time with sweat running dawn my face
and elsewhere. Then came the green light and the AMTRACs on the
portside of the LST started to move. I released the brakes and
rolled in controlled fashion - down the deck and down the ramp
and into the water. I wasn't prepared for the instant sinking of
the tractor; sea water appeared over the peep sight and water
from an open bilge port poured in - ankle deep for the 30
Marines, who began to scream. "Christ," I thought,
"I'm going to drown us all." In one quick motion the
AMTRAC bobbed to the surface, the tracks caught the friction of
the water, and the tractor was moving forward right behind
LVT-2-Port, and the screaming stopped when the Assistant Driver
and machine gunner announced "all is well and the bilge
port is closed."
had been briefed with others that after departing the LST we had
no more than 60 minutes to make it to the beach as the tide
would go out and we would be stranded and subject to enemy small
arms fire and artillery bombardments.
felt the tracks grasp the sand and the gravel of the beach and I
moved the tractor along until the beach-master motioned me to
the, left of LVT-2 and then brought me horizontally in
line with other tractors and signaled me to stop.
third man of LVT-2 lowered the ramp in the rear and 30 Marines
poured out to the left and right -of th&tractor and formed a
defensive position facing inland and th@ possible onslaught from
the North Koreans. "My Marines" followed.
the engines off and "shutting down," I exited
the tractor, looked out on the sea to see several^ tractors
bogged; down in the mud flats, and I turned my attention to the
"perimeter." The -Marines were "hunkered
down" and the perimeter was secure. LVT-3-Port was in a
defensive position and its machine gun manned. The next morning
- at early dawn - the Marines moved forward and LVT-3^Port and
other tractors followed providing the necessary covering fire.
a break came for chow and I was able to reflect on a battle I
was unprepared for - getting 30 men ashore, safely.
(S.S.) Atlantic States
Atlantic States was my first merchant ship and I always will
have strong feelings for her and for the officers and men I
sailed with. They taught me all I know about sailing and all I
know about seamanship. They, also, added to my knowledge of life
and the ways and means of people.
is strange! All the years I was aboard the States no one ever
mentioned that the ship had been torpedoed off the east coast of
the United States and struck with an unexploded torpedo
presumably shot 5 April 1945, by the German U-Boat 857, which
was reported operating in the area.
submerged sub was attacked by an American naval ship but no
evidence of the U-Boat floated to the surface.
later it was learned that the sub that attacked the States was
U-Boat 869. This information came to my attention by reading
Shadow Divers. Please see the Bibliography. Amazing!
National Vessel Documentation Center
Records and Research Assistant
Attn: Ms. Jennifer R. Barney
792 T.J. Jackson Drive
Falling Waters, WV 25419-9502
Ms. Jennifer R. Barney:
Thank you for returning my call last Friday and for your letter
and materials of nearly three (3) years ago (9/17/2004). A copy
With respect to my recent phone request, I have decided to limit
my research and focus on one (1) ship that was in Atlantic
Refining Company's fleet between the years 1945 and 1952
inclusively. That ship, a tanker, is/was the SS Atlantic States.
The specific information requested is:
hull or construction number
name of the shipyard where
built and, perhaps, the city and state
date of construction and/or
the vessel's official number
Here is a dilemma: prior to 1946, inclusive, the
official number of the Atlantic States was 240036 and
there after it became243036. (Merchant Vessels of the United
States --Index of Managing Owners).
Perhaps there is a reason _ on record _ for this change which
you might share.
Other data relative to the Atlantic States that would be
overall length of the ship
breadth (width) of the ship
the ship's displacement tonnage; and,
the draft of the vessel
Again, thank you for your assistance _ past and present and I
look forward to hearing from you.
John B. Moullette
Ships Sunk or Damaged on Eastcoast and Gulf of Mexico During World War II (Page
1 of 10)
U.S. Ships Sunk or Damaged on Eastcoast of U.S, and Gulf of
Mexico During World War II
Eastcoast of U.S. (174 ships)
Eastcoast of U.S. 1941 (2 ships)
||Oregon (States Steamship)
Eastcoast of U.S. 1942 (121
Richard Arnold (USAT)
||Torpedo and Collision
Ships Sunk or Damaged on Eastcoast and Gulf of Mexico During
World War II (Page
7 of 10)
Eastcoast of U.S. 1945 (16
||Sunk & salvaged
||Crew 9; AG 11
||Benjamin R. Milam
||Captain Nathaniel B. Palmer
||Explosion during repairs
||Crew 11; AG 1
||Marguerite Le Hand
||Joshua W. Alexander
||Thomas H. Barry (USAT)
||R. S. Wilson
Ports of Call
Outside the Continental
United States of America
Outside the United States of America Countries and Ports
And a Black Sea port
Puerto la Cruz
Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City)
of call, continents visited, longitude and latitude lines crossed and routes
traversed can be traced by referencing:
Moullette, Ed. D., John B. International Relations, Selected
Speeches and Writings. Tarpon Springs, FL_ personal _ 1993. 67 pp. illus.
Maps of the World
Countries Visited by Major Locations
Merchant Marine Discharges
• Library of Congress
American Merchant Seaman's Manual, sixth edition.
Centreville MD, Cornell Maritime Press, 1994. 614 pp. illus. *
Dictionary of Occupational Titles, fourth edition, volume
II. Washington, DC, United States Department of Labor, 1991. 991pp.
Essential World Atlas, third edition. London, George Philip,
Ltd., 2001,177 pp. illus.
Hidden Depths - Atlas of the Ocean. New York, Harper Collins
Publishers, 2007. 251 pp. illus.
Ballard, Robert D. with Michael S. Sweeney. Return to
Titanic. Washington, DC., National Geographic Society, 2004.187 pp. illus.
Beilan, Dr. Michael H. Your Offshore Doctor. New York,
Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1985.178 pp. illus.
Butler, John A. Sailing on Friday. Washington, DC. Brassey's,
1997. 277 pp. illus.
Drawer, George, Boats, Boffins and Bowlines.
Gloucestershire, UK, Sutton Publishing, Ltd, 2005. 231 pp. illus.
Gautreau, Norman G. Sea Room. San Francisco, CA, Mac
Adam/Cage Publishing, undated. 311 pp.
Gleichauf, Justin F. Unsung Sailors. Annapolis, MD, Naval
Institute Press, 2002. 418 pp. illus.
Hackman, Gene and Daniel Lenihan. Wake of the Perdido Star.
New York, New Market Press, 1999. 380 pp.
Herbert, Brian. Forgotten Heroes, The. New York, Tom
Doherty Associates, Lie, 2004. 307 pp.
Kurson, Robert and U-869 Partnership. Shadow Divers. New
York, Random House, Inc., 2004. 348 pp. illus.
Lambert, Andrew. War at Sea ... 1650-1850. New York,
Harper Collins Publishers, 2005. 229 pp. illus.
Littel, Alan. Courage. New York, St. Martin's Press,
2007.148 pp. illus.
McCarthy, Tom. Incredible Tales of the Sea. Guilford, CT,
The Lyons Press, 2005. 238 pp.
Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Battle of the Atlantic 1939-1943.
Edison, NJ, Castle Books, 1947. 422 pp. illus.
Moullette, John B. Ed. D. International Relations,
selected speeches and writings. Tarpon Springs, FL, personal publication,
copyrighted Library of Congress, 1993. 83 pp. illus.
Noms de Plume ... copyrighted Library of Congress, 1992.16
pp. illus. Offley, Ed. Scorpion Down. New York, Basic Books, 2007. 466
Sandier, Martin W. Resolute. New York, Sterling
Publishing Co., Inc., 2006. 299 pp. illus.
Shaffer, Rick. Your Guide to the Sky. Los Angeles, CA,
Lowell House, 1994.166 pp. illus.
*The sixth edition of the American Merchant Seaman's Manual
_ William B. Hayler, Master Mariner, Editor in Chief _ is based on the original
edition by Felix M. Cornell and Allan C. Hoffman _ copyrighted (5)1938.
By John B. Moullette, Ed. D.
Selected Leadership Dimensions of Management Personnel in
Vocational Education. General Education. Industry and the Military Doctoral
Dissertation, Rutgers University, June 1970
Technical Writing Masters Degree Project, Rutgers University,
July 1964 Training Start-up and Planning Guide, 1989
The Noms de Plume of the Young John Brinkley Moullette ,
Collected Poetry of Clarence Earle Moullette - an Anthology,
editor 1992 International Relations, selected speeches and writings ...,
1993 Experiences in Cambodia, July 1993 thru December 1994, July 2007 Platoon
396, 27 June thru 05 September 1944,, July 2007 Danish Emigrants to America,
Margaret Dorothy Philipsen, 1900-1967
Significant Dates in the Life and Times of Colonel Charles E.
Broyles, Georgia Volunteer Infantry. Confederate States Army, 1861-1906
Experiences at NYC Ground Zero, reported 12 March 2002,
Valley Courier, Alamosa, CO, upon request for a written account