HENRY WASHINGTON BUCHANAN was born around 1838 in Pennsylvania to Henry C. and Catherine Buchanan. There was at least one other child in the family, an older brother named William. The family lived in Philadelphia. Henry C. Buchanan was a rigger by trade. Catherine Buchanan passed away around 1841. Henry C. Buchanan later remarried.

When the census was taken in 1860 Henry Washington Buchanan had taken up the printer's trade. He was single then but would soon wed as the Civil War began. He married Sarah Wooldridge who sadly passed in 1862.

Henry Washington Buchanan enlisted in the Union Army as a Private on August 23, 1861, as a member of Company C, 71st Infantry Regiment Pennsylvania (also known as the 71st Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry or simply the 71st Pennsylvania Volunteers). He was slightly wounded at the Battle of Antietam in 1862, but made a full recovery. Henry Buchanan was promoted to Full Corporal on or around November 15, 1862, and to Full Sergeant on March 1, 1863. After three years service, he mustered out of Company C, 71st Infantry Regiment Pennsylvania on July 2, 1864 in Philadelphia PA, one of only 153 of the original 2200 men who enlisted in 1861 to serve the entire three years.

During Sergeant Buchanan's time in service he also fought at the Battle of Gettysburg. His unit, Company C, 71st Pennsylvania Volunteers was the company just to the right of the 69th Pennsylvania at the Angle at Gettysburg. This is the site of Confederate General Armistead's breakthrough. It is known that Sergeant Buchanan was at Gettysburg, but there is not documentation that he was at the Angle, although it is probable. Later he was wounded during the battles at The Wilderness.

Below is the full regimental History of the 71st Pennsylvania Volunteers

Regimental History
(Three Years)

Seventy-first Infantry.-Cols., E. D. Baker, Isaac J. Wistar Richard Penn Smith, Lieut.-Cols., William H. Penrose, John Markoe, William G. Jones, C. Kochersperger, Majs., R. A. Parrish, Charles W. Smith, George L. Ritman, Richard P. Smith, Enoch E. Lewis. 

The 71st, originally known as the California regiment, was recruited in Philadelphia in April and May, 1861, by Edward D. Baker, U. S. senator from Oregon, under special authority from President Lincoln. Eleven hundred men were enlisted within a month's time and rendezvoused by squads and companies at Fort Schuyler, near New York city, where they were mustered into service for three years. Until after the battle of Ball's bluff the regiment was treated as belonging to the regular army, but was then claimed by Pennsylvania and
applied on the state's quota, its officers being commissioned by the governor.

On July 1, 1861, it proceeded to Fortress Monroe, via Philadelphia, and was immediately assigned to picket and scout duty. After the battle of Bull Run it moved to Washington and on Sept. 11, it first came under any considerable fire, when it displayed a spirit which proved its excellent material. Early in October it moved to Poolesville, Md., where with other regiments it formed the Philadelphia brigade, commanded by Col. Baker, Gen. Stone's division, Gen. Banks' army. In the engagement at Ball's bluff, Col. Baker fell at the head of his command while cheering his men. The regiment lost here 312 men out of 520 in action. The colors were lost in mid-stream by the color-sergeant and never recovered. It then went into winter quarters, its decimated ranks were recruited, and Lieut.-Col. Wistar was promoted colonel. 

In the spring it engaged in McClellan's Peninsular campaign as part of Sedgwick's division, Sumner's corps. It was engaged with some loss at Fair Oaks; lost 96 in the action at the Chickahominy; 68 in the action at Savage Station on the afternoon of the same day; was heavily engaged at Charles City cross-roads on the following day; and acted as artillery support at Malvern hill. At Harrison's landing the regiment was reorganized. Five of its fifteen companies, L, M, N. P and R were disbanded and the men transferred to the other ten companies. It made a forced march with Sumner's corps, reaching the battlefield of the second Bull Run toward the close of the action, and served as rear-guard to Pope's retreat, constantly skirmishing as far as Chain Bridge. Sumner's corps was in reserve at the battle of South mountain, but was heavily engaged at Antietam, where the 71st performed most gallantly, losing over one-third of its number engaged. On Sept. 18, only 4 officers were able to report for duty. Col. Wistar was severely wounded here while leading a charge and was soon after promoted to brigadier-general, Lieut.-Col. Markoe succeeding to the command. 

The 71st entered on the Fredericksburg campaign as part of the 2nd brigade (Col. Owen), 2nd division (Gen. Howard), 2nd corps (Gen. Couch), and was in the Right Grand Division composed of the 2nd and 9th corps, commanded by Gen. Sumner. In the battle of Fredericksburg the command lost nearly a third of its effective strength. It was in reserve with the 2nd division at Chancellorsville and after the campaign returned to its old camp at Falmouth. 

At Gettysburg, where the regiment arrived on the evening of July 1, Gen. Hancock commanded the corps, Gen. Gibbon the division, and Gen. Webb the brigade. The 71st was posted during the battle, upon the crest of the ridge to the left and front of Gen. Meade's headquarters and a little to the left of the angle in the low stone wall. In this exposed position it suffered severe casualties in the two days, fighting, losing over 40 in the second day's contest, being subjected to a fierce artillery fire for more than 2 hours on the third day, and receiving the full force of the enemy's gallant charge which followed the artillery duel. 

Altogether it lost over half its effective strength, including 9 out of 15 officers engaged, though it captured 4 stands of colors. In the campaign which followed Lee's retreat into Virginia, it was engaged at Auburn and Bristoe Station; skirmished at Bull Run; fought at Robertson's tavern, and on the close of the Mine Run campaign went into winter quarters at Stevensburg. 

On May 3, 1864, it moved with the corps still commanded by Gen. Hancock, on the spring campaign, was heavily engaged at the Wilderness and during the advance to Spottsylvania; shared in the fierce assault at the latter place; participated in much of the subsequent fighting in the advance on Richmond; was in the assault of the 2nd corps at Cold Harbor and lost heavily in that engagement. This was its last battle, as the term of service of the regiment had now expired. 

The veterans and recruits were transferred to the 69th Pa on June 2, and the others returned to Philadelphia, where they were mustered out on July 2, 1864. Out of a total enrolment of 2,200 men only 153 returned to be mustered out.

Henry Washington Buchanan returned to Philadelphia and the printers trade. He again married, his wife the former Catherine Sweeton, bearing as son Henry Washington Jr. in 1869. Benjamin F. followed in 1871, and William G. in 1876. The Buchanans were living at 208 Godfrey Street in Philadelphia ant the time of the 1880 Census. By 1889 they had moved to Camden NJ. 

Camden City Directories show the Henry Buchanan family at 231 Linden Street in the 1888-1889 edition, 338 Federal Street in the 1890 edition, 321 Mickle Street in editions from 1891 through 1894, and at 537 West Street in 1897 and in 1900. He worked as a printer throughout these period. 

On October 12, 1902 he passed away at age 64 while living at Third Street and Elm Avenue in Merchantville NJ, the residence of his son,  William G. Buchanan. He had been a member of the 71st Pennsylvania Survivor's Organization.

Henry Washington Buchanan is buried in Harleigh Cemetery with his second wife Catherine Sweeton and his youngest son William G. Buchanan and William's wife Blanche Lee. They are in the Summit section, Lot 284.

Civil War

Buchanan Family Lineage
courtesy of Dan Cashin

1.Henry C. Buchanan 1806 - before 1862 Virginia/Pa Rigger
     Catherine (McCluskey?) 1808 - 1841 Pa./Pa
     Mary (2nd wife) 1807 - 1874 Pa./Pa Widow Pickell

    2. William G. Buchanan 1831 - 1905 Pa/Pa Carpenter/Alderman
    2. Henry Washington Buchanan 1837 - 1902 Pa/NJ Printer
           Spouse Sarah Wooldridge (1st wife.) 1840 - 1862
           Spouse Catherine Sweeton 1846 - 1931 Pa/NJ

        3. Henry W. Jr. 8/1868 - 1930+ Pa Printer
               Spouse Mary Ella ? 1869 - NJ
            4. Mildred 7/27/1891 - 12/1979 Pa/NJ Moorestown
                   Spouse William Bradford 1890 Va 2nd wife ?

            4. Francis Henry 9/19/1892 - 2/1986 Pa/NJ Woodcarver/Oaklyn
                  Spouse Adalaide ? 1894 - 1930+ Pa Married at age 19

                5. Harry W. 4/7/1915 - 8/2/2001 NJ Woodbury
                5. Warren F. 8/12/1909 - 2/15/1995 NJ Maple Shade
                5. Donald W. 10/29/1925/29? - 6/16/2000 NJ Moorestown

            4. Helen M. 12/22/1899 - 2/1982 NJ RR steno/Moorestown
                   Spouse William Grant 1897 NJ Married 1922

                5. Clarence 1923 NJ

       3. Benjamin F. 3/1871 - 1913? Pa/NJ Barber/Grocer
             Spouse Elizabeth 7/1878 - 10/31/1921 NJ/NJ Camden

           4. Harry 4/28/1904 - 1920+ NJ Pennsauken
           4. Irene 1903 - 1920+ NJ

       3. William G. 1876 - 2/24/1973 Pa Accountant - Pennsylvania Railroad & Freihofer's Bakery
             Spouse Blanche Lee 1877 - 1959 NJ
             No children